India Tours, India Travel, Travel to India, Incredible India Tourism

India Tours, India Travel, Incredible India Tourism
Joco & Mike
Hi, Rohit

On behalf of Gill and I this is to say a big thank you for a great vacation. rohit and the team in Delhi did a good job in managing the tour. The organisation and service was excellent and everything went without a hitch.

About India

The history of India as a country and as the subcontinent region is very interesting. Archeological findings suggest Home sapiens were present on this land as long as 75,000 years back. The first main civilization that flourished in India was the Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization, which existed between 3300 BC to 1500 BC, spread in the northwestern region of the country. It flourished around the Indus River and various tributaries of the river. Archeological evidences of this civilization are found in the modern-day states of Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan in India and in some areas of Pakistan. The inhabitants of this civilization are believed to be highly skilled in metallurgy and in making of various handicraft items. This civilization came to an end due to a number of factors including the natural disasters and coming of Aryans.

Indus Valley civilization was followed by the Vedic period in India. Vedic period that lasted for about thousand years from 1500 BC to 500 BC was distinguished by Indo-Aryan culture and the Vedas, the sacred books for the Hindus. This was the period when a new social government system or kingdoms emerged in the society known as Mahajanapadas. These were the powerful kingdoms which emerged mostly across the Indo-Gangetic plains. Magadha grew as a major kingdom during this period, while Nalanda University became a great educational institution of the world. In around 6th century BC, birth of two great philosophers and thinkers on the land of India gave a new direction to history of India. These two thinkers were Gautam Buddha and Mahavira. The philosophies of Buddha and Mahavira spread in major part of India which ultimately led to the birth to two new religions – Buddhism and Jainism.

During 4th century BC, Maurya Empire gained control of most of the subcontinent. In around 4th century AD, Gupta Empire emerged in northern part of India and ruled much of northern and central India for the next 200 years. It was the time when various other empires were also emerging in the southern India including Chalukyas, Pallavas, Cholas, and Pandyas. In 7th century, Islam reached the Indian subcontinent through Muslim traders who used to visit Kerala for business purpose. In early 8th century, the first Muslim rule started in Sindh region under Muhammad bin Qasim, who was an Arab commander. It helped the invaders from central Asia during their attacks on India between 10th and 15th centuries AD.

In 1526, Babar, the descendant of Timur, established the Mughal Empire in Indian subcontinent that extended into present day Pakistan, Afghanistan, India and Bangladesh. Humayun, the son of Babur, could not maintain the empire and was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in 1540. When Sher Shah died, his son along with a Hindu King Hemu ruled the north India for next 16 years. Ultimately, Akbar, the son of Humayun, defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556. For next 150 years, Mughal Empire ruled major part of India, especially the northern India. Various Rajput kingdoms as well as many Hindu states also existed at this time in different parts of the country. Akbar is considered the greatest king of Mughal Empire who established good relationship with non-Muslim communities of India especially the Hindus. He declared a ban on killing of animals during the holy days of Jainism. He also withdrew the Jajiya tax implemented on non-Muslims. He married Hindu princess to establish good relations with local Hindu kings. However, later emperors were not so sympathetic to non-Muslim communities. Aurangazeb destroyed many Hindu temples during his reign.

Decline of Mughal Empire started from early 18th century. Nader Shah, the mighty king of Iran defeated the Mughal forces in 1739. He captured Delhi and carried away with him many treasures from India including the Peacock Throne. Early 18th century was also the time when the British were trying to establish their colonies in Asia. By late-18th century, the British East India Company had gained control of most part of the India. The first Indian Rebellion for freedom occurred in 1857, which failed but led the British Crown to take India under its direct administration.

In early 20th century, people of India united themselves and launched a nationwide struggle against the British. Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the most prominent leader who guided the people of India towards the goal of getting freedom from the British rule. Mahatma Gandhi started a number of peaceful mass movements to unite people of India against the British Raj. Many hardliners and revolutionaries adopted different approach that was use of weapons against the British. Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Raj Guru, Sukhdev, etc., were among the leading revolutionaries of that period. Subhash Chandra Bose established his Azad Hind Force to fight against the British.  After so many sacrifices of the people of India, the country gained independence in 1947. However, it was partitioned into two nations. The world saw the birth of a new nation that was called Pakistan. After independence, India adopted the democratic way of governance and today boats of being the largest democratic country of the world.